If a pill containing no active ingredients still helps, this positive expectation is called a placebo effect. A negative expectation is called a nocebo effect. Both can be produced by verbal suggestions and conditioning. According to Andrea Evers’ research group, combining these is the most promising approach to itching.
A supportive upbringing is crucial for an adoptive child’s development, concludes Leiden PhD candidate Christie Schoenmaker. Malnourished adopted children initially have a lower IQ score, but malnutrition does not have any consequences for their occupational level later on.
Projects in developing countries aiming to establish a sound administration often fail because aid organisations do not immerse themselves adequately in local knowledge and customs, argues Moosa Elayah. A ‘Bank of Local Knowledge’ can be a solution. PhD defence on 17 April.